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  • drdianehamilton 3:40 am on February 21, 2017 Permalink | Reply  

    What John Tamny of Forbes Can Teach Us About Sexy Marketing 

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    On March 7, 2017, Forbes’ Editor John Tamny will speak in San Diego about the fed. What does that have to do with sexy marketing? Tamny has done a great job of utilizing celebrity examples to make his points about economics. Think about his latest book title:  Who Needs the Fed?: What Taylor Swift, Uber, and Robots Tell Us About Money, Credit, and Why We Should Abolish America’s Central Bank. If it were just titled Who Needs the Fed? that would not be nearly as intriguing. Taylor Swift is far sexier. What is great about Tamny’s writing is that he discusses important economic subjects, while bringing in celebrity examples to bring his points home. By using timely examples like Taylor Swift’s stance on Apple’s decision to give away music for free, he appeals to the masses. Tamny’s title and content choice demonstrate how even the most challenging topics can be made more appealing if the right picture is painted in consumers’ minds.

    Tamny probably learned many content publishing tips from his work at Forbes. One thing his book’s title demonstrates is how important it is to reach prospective customers with a personalized message. That is what top marketing professionals hope to accomplish. However, many marketing professionals can attest that this may be challenging when creating content at scale. To help improve this process, I wrote and taught some brand publishing courses as part of my work as the MBA Program Chair for the Forbes School of Business and Technology. I was fortunate to interact with many CMOs at last November’s Forbes Summit in Coronado. My interactions with these professionals reinforced how many of them experience the same frustrations involving the difficulty with the process of transitioning from traditional forms of advertising and marketing toward brand publishing. Personalizing content, making it appealing or sexy, can be quite challenging. When creating the brand publishing courses, we used Bruce Rogers’ Publish or Perish Report as a key component. Bruce did an excellent job researching how top companies use the vast number of vendors in the most effective ways.

    Whether marketers want to create a social media campaign or individuals want to write a book, the same thing is true; content is king. That is evident through the work from John Tamny. For those of you in the San Diego area on March 7, I highly recommend reserving your spot for a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to see John Tamny, top Editor at Forbes, speak for free. I will be there and look forward to interviewing him.

    About the Author:

    Dr. Diane Hamilton is an award-winning speaker, nationally-syndicated radio host, educator, and the co-author of It’s Not You, It’s Your Personality  Dr. Hamilton has spoken for top companies including Forbes about topics including leadership, engagement, emotional intelligence, and generational conflict. She can be reached at DrDianeHamilton.com. If you would like to sign up for her update please click here: Contact Dr. Diane Hamilton.

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  • drdianehamilton 10:57 am on February 17, 2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Top Companies and Leaders: Connecting Through Talk Radio 

    Tesla Radio

    Radio remains a leading platform for organizations to advertise and for individuals to learn lessons from inspirational speakers, authors, and leaders.  If an executive’s day is so packed with things to do, the thought of listening to a radio show may seem like a luxury.  However, the reality is, a lot of people are listening.  News Generation shared some important statistics.

    • Radio is the leading reach platform: 93% of us listen to AM/FM radio over the airwaves, which is higher than TV viewership (85%), PC use (50%), smartphone use (74%), and tablet use (29%)
    • 265 million Americans 6+ listen to the radio each week;
    • 66 million Millennials use radio each week;
    • Audio consumers are listening for more than 12 hours each week; and
    • The majority of radio usage comes from employed listeners; nearly three-quarters of Generation X listeners work full-time.

    With so many working people listening, leaders must ensure that their companies are represented well there.  Radio is just one part of the total brand publishing picture. Radio shows seek sponsors with enticing messages.  Business organizations have a variety of goals they want to achieve with their message.  Radio advertising is cost-effective, time-efficient, demonstrates measurable results, and can provide the following opportunities.

    • Shows social responsibility and improve their image
    • Builds brand loyalty and increase their customer base
    • Drives traffic and increase sales
    • Educates consumers in an intimate forum

    Not only can leaders connect to their consumers through radio, but they can also learn from it.  There is no shortage of talk radio shows where leaders can learn from their peers. With the advent of iTunes, IHeartRadio, and other platforms, everyone has the luxury of listening when it is convenient, and they can do it on just about any mobile device.  The more technology changes, it is interesting to witness how the need for connection and edutainment continues to remain popular.

    About the Author:

    Dr. Diane Hamilton is a nationally-syndicated radio host of Take The Lead Radio, an award-winning speaker, educator, and the co-author of It’s Not You, It’s Your Personality.  She developed brand publishing courses for Forbes based on Bruce Rogers’ Publish or Perish Report. Dr. Hamilton has spoken for top companies including Forbes about topics including leadership, engagement, emotional intelligence, and generational conflict.  If you would like to learn more about these issues or be a guest on her radio show, you can go to Dr. Hamilton’s website or contact her through Linkedin.

    Dr. Diane Hamilton Take The Lead Radio

     
  • drdianehamilton 9:14 am on January 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ABSEL, , Burnout, , , , Penn State, ,   

    Avoiding Teacher Burnout: New Research Explains How 

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    A recent report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation at Penn State found that Teachers are burning out at an alarming rate.  Around 30-40% will leave their jobs by their fifth year of teaching. There are many reasons for this turnover.  The four main reasons are stress-related and include:

    • School Organizations – Lack a supportive climate and leadership.
    • Job Demands – High-stakes testing and managing students with behavior problems produce chronic stress.
    • Work Resources – Lack of decision-making power. Teachers reported autonomy went from 18% in 2004 to 26% in 2012.
    • Teacher Social and Emotional Competence – High stress and low social-emotional competence training.

    teacherstudy

    When teachers are stressed, teachers, students, and schools suffer. High turnover costs schools $7 billion each year.  The research from Penn State found, “the cost per teacher is estimated from over $4,000 in rural areas to over $17,000 in urban districts.” The authors of this study found that there needs to be a way to prevent negative issues that impact teachers.  The authors also found few teachers receive professional development to improve their social and emotional competence.  Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs may improve student behavior and reduce teacher stress.

    In March 2017, I will speak about ways to improve student behavior and teacher stress at the ABSEL Conference in Myrtle Beach.  My research I will present mirrors many of the issues found in this Penn State research, including how behavior problems are the source of teacher burnout and ways to improve behaviors in students to proactively provide teachers a less stressful classroom environment.  To find out more about improving the classroom environment to improve teachers’ stress levels, check out: What other educators are saying; to learn more about the types of training teachers receive, check out: Classroom Management Agenda.

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  • drdianehamilton 8:33 am on November 19, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , Elementary Education, K-12, , , Training   

    Stop the Madness with Top Classroom Management Techniques 

    I have worked with educators in schools and universities across the United States since 2006.  My experience includes teaching, speaking, mentoring, training, program review, and curriculum design.  My goal is to help educators succeed and make a difference in the lives of students.  As a successful educator, coach, national trainer, and speaker, I promise to motivate and inspire educators through my on-site school training and district keynotes.  I share practical, proven strategies for immediate use in classrooms. This information will help educators feel self-value and proud of their chosen profession as they witness what proven techniques can do to help them succeed.  Please contact me today to find out how I can make a difference for you and your students.  For more information about hiring me for business consulting, speaking, and other training, please click on this link:  https://www.smore.com/ruh68-stop-the-madness

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  • drdianehamilton 6:44 am on November 21, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , ,   

    Professors’ Expectations: Helpful Writing Tips for College Students 

    Writing

    Students often struggle with writing essays.  Some have difficulty with structure. Others dread dealing with APA formatting. I teach everything from bachelor-level to doctoral-level courses.  The following contains some helpful writing tips that I have found may make writing essays a little easier.

    Citations and References:

    Many of the courses I teach require that students master the use of citations and references.  I have found that students often become confused about how to include these.  One common mistake that students make is to include a reference page without including any citations.  That is not correct. The problem with that is there is no way to determine what part, if any, of the paper was paraphrased or cited from that source.  Students sometimes think that listing a reference is a way to show that they used that information for the paper.  However, there is more that must be done than simply including the source on the reference page. There must also be citations.  Citations may be paraphrased or directly quoted.  If there is a reference, there must be at least one corresponding citation.

    • A paraphrased citation looks something like this: Hamilton (2014) explained the importance of citations.

    Students may also want to include directly quoted material.  I teach some courses where I allow this and other courses where I only allow paraphrased citations.

    • If directly quoted citations are allowed, they look something like this: “Citations may be paraphrased or directly quoted” (Hamilton, 2014, p. 1).

    I prefer that my students paraphrase their citations. This may help demonstrate that they understand the content. However, it is important that if any information is paraphrased or quoted directly from a source, the author and year information must be included (list n.d. if no date is listed).  There may be specific guidelines listed in the APA manual for listing page numbers and other identifying information. Students should be aware of the following:

    • Do not list citations without references.
    • Do not list references without citations.
    • Do not list the author and year information at the end of the paragraph and assume it covers the entire paragraph of content.  Author and year information must be included for any paraphrased sentence or directly quoted block of content.
    • Citations and references must be in APA format (for most courses). Do not include footnotes if APA is required.
    • Do not number the references; list them in APA format.
    • Alphabetize references in APA format.
    • Long direct quotes have unique indentation requirements.  I recommend avoid any long direct quotes. They are usually used by students to fill up space.  Professors may not like that.
    • Be sure the alignment of references is correct on the reference page. The first line of each source should be at the left margin and every line after that indented ½ inch.  See APA guidelines for help.
    • Use peer-reviewed scholarly journals for citing.
    • Double-check with the Owl Purdue Writing Lab for help with how to cite unusual sources.

    It may be a challenge for students to get into the habit of citing correctly.  There are some sources like Perrla that may help.

    Use of Appropriate Sources:

    Another common citing mistake is to use less-than-scholarly sources. Although I enjoy writing blogs and doing research, I do not recommend that students use this or any other similar site as a source in their research papers.  Blogs may sometimes contain news-worthy information. However, usually they contain opinion and other information that has not been peer-reviewed.

    There are many sites that students use that are not considered appropriate sources for research.  Blogs are just one of them.  The following list contains some sources that students should not use:

    • Blogs – Blogs are meant for things other than research. They may be helpful in giving insight into how to do things.  They may be fun to read in terms of content.  However, students need to realize that some blogs may not contain accurate information.
    • Wikipedia – Wikipedia is a common student favorite.  It contains some very good information. However, the content is written on a wiki. A wiki allows more than one person to add or change information.  Any wiki should not be used as a source for citing.  Wikipedia may have some very good sources listed at the bottom of the page.  If students start at Wikipedia to research a topic, they could look at the bottom to find the original source of information. At that point, students can search their school’s library for that source to see if it comes up under peer-reviewed scholarly sources.
    • eHow, Quora, or other Q&A Sites – There are plenty of Q&A sites that allow people to answer questions on the Internet.  Just because there is an answer on these sites, does not mean that the answer is correct or has been reviewed by anyone.  Think of these sites as you would a blog.  They may or may not contain accurate information.  Therefore, they should not be used to cite.
    • Dictionary – This is a source students tend to like to cite.  Although it is accurate and will give a good definition, some professors look at this as a kind of “cop out” source.  It is easy to look up a definition in the dictionary.  It is better to show scholarly research that explains the subject in more detail.
    • Books – Some books should not be used as sources.  If there is a textbook assigned to the course, it is usually a good source to cite.  However, not all books are considered “scholarly”.  It is best to stick to peer-reviewed journals if there is any doubt.

    Some professors will allow just about any source for citations.  Others are extremely picky.  To be safe, it is a good idea to get in the habit of using only peer-reviewed scholarly sources.  For more information, check out:  What is a Peer-Reviewed Journal.

    Schools usually have an online library where students can find appropriate sources.  Near the search bar, there may be a box that can be checked to ensure that the search only delivers peer-reviewed scholarly sources.  The wise students stick to the school’s library for research.  It is as easy to search as Google and the chances of coming up with proper research are enhanced.

    Other Common Mistakes:

    I notice that many students make similar mistakes.  I make comments on their papers to address these issues.  Many of them disregard my comments and continue to submit the papers with the same mistakes.  I thought it might be helpful to create a checklist of some of the most common mistakes that I see and give some guidelines as how to correct them.

    • Tense – Students should stick to third person rather than first or second person unless the paper is specifically about them. In this blog, I write in first person. I use words like I, me, us, and we. Those are fine in this type of setting.  In undergraduate and graduate courses, students must be able to write as if they are an observer.  It is also incorrect to write in second person. Second person includes words like you and your.  Students must learn how to write in third person.  Do not write a paper that begins with something like: I chose to write about this because blah blah blah. There is no need to mention the author (aka the student).  Just write about the topic.
    • Paragraph/Overall Structure – I often include a link in class that directs student to this Youtube Video that explains how to write a well-constructed paper.  It is important not to have an overly long or overly short paragraph.  I have seen students submit entire papers that included only one paragraph.  I prefer to see paragraphs include around 4-8 sentences.  If citing is required, it is better to begin a paragraph with a statement and then follow it with citations.  The citations are there to support any points.  Students must make their points before they can support them.  Students often forget to set up their papers to include an introduction, body and conclusion.  I recommend watching the Youtube video for help with this and many other structural and writing issues.
    • Microsoft Word Issues – Students often have difficulty with formatting issues.  I have created the following videos that  may be helpful with some of these problems:  How to Remove Extra Spaces from in Between Paragraphs, Working with Headers and Page Numbers, How to Change Period Spacing.
    • Using Scholarly Sources – Students may have difficulty distinguishing between the kinds of sources that are allowed for citations. If students’ first inclination is to search for answers on Google or if Wikipedia is their best friend, I recommend that they check out their school’s library search engine instead.
    • Font Issues – Students must be sure that their papers meet APA guidelines.  The font needs to be set at 12 point.  There should not be any special bold, ALL CAPS, or underlined information that does not meet these guidelines.
    • Confusion Between Citations and References – I recommend reading:  What is the Difference Between Citations and References. The reference page must be titled References and not Works Cited.
    • Amount of Citations – Students often do not include enough citations.  They must be able to demonstrate their research and back up any points.  I find that many students like to write in a story-telling fashion.  Others may already know information about a topic and write based on experience. It is important to cite even if you are a subject expert.  Some may be tempted to cite too often.  Every single sentence should not be a citation.  That is called patchworking.  It is important to make a point and then back it up with citations to demonstrate your research.
    • Follow Rubrics and Guidelines – If there are specific requirements for the assignment, it is important that students follow the guidelines.  If five pages are required, then submit at least five complete pages.  The title page and reference pages do not count toward page requirements.  If the professor has posted any additional requirements in class, it is important to go through that checklist to determine that all requirements have been met.

    Graduate-Level Expectations:

    Graduate-level students may be required to have a higher level of writing expertise.  These requirements may cause students to become frustrated. Some of my online students have not taken courses in a very long time.  Many of them have not learned how to write properly in APA format. I have a surprisingly high number of students who have difficulty with sentence and paragraph structure. Graduate students should not use contractions.  For example, words like cannot should not be written as can’t.  Papers should be written in third person unless it specifically states that the assignment should be written in first person. Students should support all major points and information that is not common knowledge with peer-reviewed scholarly sources.  The school’s library should be the main search source. Whenever information is not common knowledge or is paraphrased, it should be cited. 

    I have had some students who get annoyed when I take off points for these issues.  I post my requirements on the first day of class, so that there are no excuses for not following my guidelines.  However, there will always be some students who feel it is their right to write incorrectly.  They may not truly understand the narrative mode issue or how to cite in APA format.

    At the graduate level, it is up to students to learn these things.  It is important to write in a scholarly tone.  I think students should write as if their paper could be printed in a journal.  It is important that students do not write in an informal tone.  Some students like to insert personal anecdotes or other information that is not appropriate for the assignment or this level of work.  Unless the instructor specifically states that papers may be written informally or in some other format, graduate-level students should stick to a scholarly third-person tone that is supported consistently throughout with peer-reviewed research.

    There may come a time when an assigned essay involves something that the student has experienced or already has studied.  For example, an assignment might be to write about a famous entrepreneur.  I have many students that are fans of Steve Jobs or Oprah Winfrey.  They may know everything there is to know about these people because they have followed their careers.

    Many students make the mistake of writing in a storytelling-fashion, based on their own interpretation of what they think they already know.  If it is a graduate-level assignment, usually citations and research are required.  That means that students will need to find sources to support their writing.

    I commonly I see students write something like this:  I chose Oprah Winfrey because she makes me feel blah blah blah.  There are several problems with this sentence.  First of all, the paper should be about Oprah and not about the student.  There is no need to write in first person.  Unless the professor specifically stated that students should explain their feelings, the assignment should stick to what Oprah has accomplished.

    Students often like to refer to their feelings in their writing.  They also like to include personal anecdotes.  For most of the classes that I teach, this is not appropriate.

    Sometimes a student will drop me a note that states something like this:  “I already know everything about this subject, so I didn’t include citations.”  I understand what they mean. However, even if the student knows everything about a topic, the point of the assignment is to show what they have learned through research.

    Students must get into the habit of finding solid scholarly sources to back up what they have written.  Without citations, they have written opinion and not research.

    There are certain expectations of higher-level students.  They should be able to write in complete paragraphs that include around four to eight sentences.  Students should cite consistently throughout each of those paragraphs to support major points.  A strong introduction and conclusion should be included.

    When students cite, it is a good idea to paraphrase those citations whenever possible.  Some students try to fill space by including many long direct quotations. I have corrected papers where students had about 10% of their own information and the rest was directly quoted from another source. This is not acceptable. Some schools do not allow more than 10% directly quoted material.  It is easy to copy and paste what others have written.  That does not really show that the student has learned anything.  It is far better to paraphrase citations to show that the information has been processed and understood.

     Related Articles:

    Also check out this video for helpful tips I give my students to help them succeed in class:

     
  • drdianehamilton 4:10 pm on November 7, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , ,   

    NCU Interviews Dr. Diane Hamilton 

    NCU Interviews Dr. Diane Hamilton

    For more see the full article at Northcentral University Higher Degrees Fall 2013

     
  • drdianehamilton 10:27 am on July 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , MOOCs, , Work Life Balance   

    Online Classes Offer Balance 

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    Online classes offer a variety of advantages for working adults who have enough on their plate without adding the stress of finding time for an education.  Probably the hardest part of attending a traditional university, for me, was finding time to fit it into my schedule.  I worked the traditional workday and then I had to make it to three-hour class four nights a week.  This was brutal because by the time I drove home and got to bed, it was close to midnight.  I would have to get up at 6 am and start all over again.  Thankfully I was in my early 20s at the time.  I honesty do not think I could handle that sort of schedule now.

    Traditional courses took at least four hours out of my day (to just attend class).  Then I had an hour or two of homework each day that I had to squeeze in either before midnight or on my lunch breaks.  At minimum, I probably spent at least five hours a day dealing with school-related issues.  In online classes, since there are no lectures, and there is no driving and parking, etc., I probably spent about two hours a day.  When you are a working adult with family responsibilities, saving three hours a day is huge.

    Traditional schools may be a great thing for people who have the time and money to afford them. Unfortunately many people do not have that luxury. Some students will have to obtain financial help whether they attend traditional or online courses.  The advantage of online courses is that students have more time to work to pay for the loans.

    I have read many articles about the value of a traditional education versus an online education.  Many of them have been written by professors who work in brick and mortar classrooms. I understand their perspective.  There may be some wonderful things to be learned at a traditional university.  The problem is that it is not that simple.  In today’s society, traditional roles have changed. Women may have much more responsibilities outside of the home.  The stress of raising a family, working, and trying to squeeze in time for education may make the choice of a traditional college a poor option.

    It is not appropriate to make blanket statements about all online courses based on limited experience. I have worked for many different online universities. They are not all the same.  Some offer a better education.  Comparing MOOCs to traditional online courses is like comparing apples to oranges.  The same is true about comparing unaccredited universities with accredited universities.

    Accredited online courses offer people a quality education and a life.  I do not believe that sitting in a lecture hall adds that much to the learning experience.  All of the driving, parking and sitting in class, took away precious time that I believe did not add to my educational experience.  All it did was stress me out and leave less time for others. Thankfully I finished my traditional education before my children were born.  Once I had a family, distance education became an option and opened up incredible opportunities for me.  It is interesting that traditional universities now offer more online courses.  The same institutions that had “issues” with online education now provide it.  The good news is that everyone is waking up and realizing that online education offers the best of all worlds for those who want it.

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    • Shawn Dragonaire 4:33 pm on July 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply

      I completely agree with your perspective on this specific topic. I have also been taking notice of more traditional non-profit colleges and universities starting to offer online course and gradually expanding into full programs. Thanks for sharing with us and it will be most interesting to observe how online degree programs start to become the accepted norm in public and private traditional colleges/universities within the next 5+ years.

  • drdianehamilton 1:36 pm on December 4, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Generation Ali, , , Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ali Center   

    Generation Ali Passes the Torch to Millennial Generation 

    genali-logo

    Muhammad Ali has been called the most recognizable man on earth. While he is still considered the champ from his boxing days, he has continued to inspire people around the world.  His belief that others can achieve greatness led to his most recent venture the Generation Ali Global Citizenship Scholarship Program.  This program, due to launch December 7, 2012, is aimed at the millennial generation. According to the Generation Ali site, the program is about “Fostering tomorrow’s leaders to achieve personal greatness, contribute positively to their communities, and change the world for the better.”

    According to Alltech, Donald Lassere, president of the Muhammad Ali Center stated, “Muhammad Ali has proven that one person can be a spark that lights the flame of inspiration and change the world. Generation Ali will take up the torch and continue Muhammad’s legacy by inspiring a new generation of leaders to create better lives, better nations, and a better world.”

    In order to apply for this program, applicants must

    • Be a high school senior or graduate or post-secondary undergraduate.
    • Plan to enroll or are currently enrolled in full-time undergraduate study at an accredited United States two- or four-year college, university or vocational technical school.
    • U.S. and international students encouraged to apply.

    Ali’s Facebook site shows a graphic that mentions $10,000 scholarships. Ali stated, “This is it! The Greatest Scholarship of All Time is here! Start spreading the word. Online application starts December 7th! U.S. and international students encouraged to apply.”

    To find out more about his program, check out the video Generation Ali and go to GenerationAli.org.

     
  • drdianehamilton 10:31 am on August 15, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Alex Zhardanovsky, , , , , , , , ,   

    How Businesses can Maximize Online Presence 

    While business leaders may constantly hear they need to maximize their online presence on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites, there may be more that they could do to succeed.  Just having a Facebook or Twitter page is not enough. These sites need to be managed and constantly promoted.

    Technology entrepreneur Alex Zhardanovsky was recently interviewed by Fox News about ways businesses can improve their online presence. He explained that Facebook can be used like a newsletter.  He stated, “The nice thing about Facebook is that if you spend money building a Facebook page, you have an audience that does not go away.” This gives businesses an advantage of the old style of having people click on a link and then closing a page where they may never return again.

    Facebook allows for more of a conversation where businesses can reach customers on a consistent basis.  The best part is it is a free way to build a relationship with people that may later become paying customers. Facebook Fan pages are a very important thing for business to create.  Businesses can post interesting content so that people will want to interact on that page.  Facebook also allows companies to target specific demographics.

    Zhardanovsky recommends using a company called AlphaBoost to help companies build better advertising.  This site allows potential advertisers see how the competition’s ads are performing.  They can see the likes, clicks and views of the competition’s ad. The thought process is that if the business is similar, they will receive a similar reaction to a comparable ad.  He explained that once companies get the “likes” from posting a similar ad, then that is when they can differentiate their business from the competition.

    To hear more tips about Twitter and other social media platforms, check out the video interview by clicking here:  Small Biz Tips from Top Tech Entrepreneur

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  • drdianehamilton 11:23 am on April 2, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Bandura, , , , Goal orientation, Goal setting, , Jean Piaget, , Social Learning, Social learning theory   

    Perception and Motivation in Goal Achievement 

    It may be challenging for students to find motivation to reach set goals. People may be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to succeed.  However, there are different theories about what motivates behavior.  Some people believe that reinforcement is necessary for people to truly feel motivated to change behaviors. Albert Bandura is a name often associated with discussions of motivation and learning.  Bandura is a Canadian psychologist responsible for social learning theory. Along with Skinner, Freud, and Piaget, Bandura is one of the most frequently cited psychologists. Bandura believed that reinforcement alone did not account for all learning or motivation.  He felt people could learn through observation, intrinsic reinforcement, and modeling the behaviors of others. Intrinsic reinforcement occurs when people receive an internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment.

    Part of wanting to achieve a goal is to have the expectancy of reward associated with that goal.  Self-efficacy is another important component that is developed as students feel confidence in performing well.  An article by Nacada.KSU.edu explained the factors associated with motivation include:  Intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, test anxiety, and self-efficacy for learning and performance.  The authors noted, “The self-efficacy construct postulated by Bandura in his social learning theory has guided extensive motivational research.”

    Students must not only be motivated to achieve the goal, but be able to make the goal measurable.  The mnemonic “SMART” is often referred to in goal-setting. SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.  In the article Set Specific Goals to Increase Success, the author suggests using the following formula in order to make goals measurable:  “I will (goal + performance measure) by (specific actions).” If a student wanted to receive an A as their goal, he or she would fill in the blanks with something like this:  I will receive an A in BUS101 by studying 2 hours a night Monday through Friday from 6-8 pm.”  Students often will state the goal without remembering to include the steps required to reach that goal.  By making the goal measurable, students can measure their progress toward attaining that goal.  This creates a roadmap to achieving the goal.

    Reaching goals requires motivation. ZenHabits does a nice job of explaining motivation, as well as ways to achieve it and sustain it during times of struggle.  To find out more about motivation, check out the self-motivation quiz from Mindtools. After the quiz, there is a nice explanation of factors involved in self-motivation including:  self-confidence and efficacy, positive thinking, focus, and environment. The author from the article How Self-Motivated Are You noted, “Self-motivation doesn’t come naturally to everyone. And even those who are highly self-motivated need some extra help every now and then. Build your self-motivation by practicing goal-setting skills, and combining those with positive thinking, the creation of powerful visions of success, and the building of high levels of self-efficacy and self-confidence.”

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